Mischling (‘half castes’)

The Nuremberg Race Laws provided a legal definition of Mischlinge (‘half castes’ or ‘persons of mixed blood’). Anyone with one Jewish grandparent was classified as a ‘second-degree Mischling’ and was initially spared from discrimination. Anyone with two Jewish grandparents was deemed a ‘first-degree Mischling’ and subject to significant persecution. At the end of 1943 the Nazi regime decided to deploy male ‘first-degree Mischlinge’ as forced laborers for Organization Todt (a Nazi organization carrying out large-scale infrastructure projects in occupied Europe). Anyone with three Jewish grandparents was considered a ‘full Jew’ (Volljude).